Humans organize and classify organisms based on their characteristics. The three domains of life are currently divided into six kingdoms, one of which is Kingdom Animalia. This kingdom is further divi

Humans organize and classify organisms based on their characteristics. The three domains of life are currently divided into six kingdoms, one of which is Kingdom Animalia. This kingdom is further divided into 35 over phyla. Both lions and wolves belong to Class Mammalia and Order Carnivora, which is Latin for “flesh devourer”. To the right is an image displaying the families within Order Carnivora. Locate Family Canidae (wolves) and Family Felidae (lions). How long ago was their most recent common ancestor? How did you come to this answer? Given the above diagram, would you expect their innate (inborn) and learned behaviors to be similar or different? What about their methods of communication? Cite evidence from the above diagram to support your answer. There are two major clades that diverged from one another over 55 millions years ago: one that includes Canids and its relatives and one that includes Felids and their relatives. By just observing the clade that includes Canids, what does it tell you about Canid evolution specifically compared to that of its relatives? What are the most recently evolved groups in the clade that includes Canids? How do you know? Based on your answer to the previous question, how did these most recently evolved groups adapt to new environments? Describe the hypothetical process you think could have occurred. Based on your answer to the previous question, what changes on Earth could have led to the selective pressures forcing these species to evolve in these ways? Sea otters are classified as mustelids. What can you infer about their evolution using the diagram above. Group Dynamics Research and/or recall information about the animal groups listed below. The following websites may offer assistance with the wolf column: http://www.wolfweb.com/facts-pack.html https://www.livingwithwolves.org/how-wolves-hunt/ http://www.wolf.org/wolf-info/wild-kids/wolf-families/ Lions Wolves Similar or different? Live solitary or in groups? (If in groups, what relationships are present?) Similar Different (Circle One) Have a Hierarchy or Do not Have a Hierarchy? (*If a hierarchy exists, who is in charge?) Similar Different (Circle One) Who is responsible for hunting? Similar Different (Circle One) Who is responsible for raising young? Similar Different (Circle One) Communication Lions and wolves have complex social structures and when you’re social, you must be able to communicate effectively with others. Lions and wolves use three different languages: Body Language – Body Postures, Movements and Facial Expressions. Special Scents – Scats, Urine and Pheromones. Sound – Howls, Barks, Whimpers and Growls. Wolf Body Language To communicate dominance, wolves carry their tails high and stand tall. Less dominant wolves exhibit submissive behavior by holding their tails down and often lower their bodies while pawing at the higher ranking wolves. Active submission is a contact activity in which signs of inferiority are evident such as crouching, muzzle licking and tail tucking. Activity Procedure Using the diagram below for assistance, match the provided list of behaviors/postures to the wolf images on the next page. Do this by writing the name of the behavior underneath the diagram provided. Each behavior will be used once. Locate Figure 3 on the supplementary handout. How do domestic cat and African lion behaviors compare? Cite evidence from the graphic to support your claim. Locate Figure 2 on the supplementary handout. What patterns emerge as you compare lion and wolf behaviors/postures? Cite evidence from both the wolf and cat graphics to support your claims. Refer to specific wolf letters and cat numbers as you thoroughly discuss all evidence. Based on all lines of evidence throughout this activity, what would you expect from domesticated dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as far as behavioral similarities and differences? Based on all lines of evidence throughout this activity, what would you expect from domesticated cats (Felis catus) as far as behavioral similarities and differences? Do the similarities in behavior between canids and felids point more to a divergent evolution pattern or a convergent evolution pattern. Cite specific evidence to support your claim.

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