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exercise 2

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Exercises 2/3

Now that you have developed your research question, you need to begin the process of developing your research design. Since your proposal will ultimately involve multiple methods proposal, recognize that the process will differ for your qualitative and quantitative studies. You will move toward the development of your proposed design by first providing a more detailed analysis of the research articles on your chosen topic

(from Exercise 1).

Exercise #2 Quantitative Survey Research


You will complete Parts I-IV for each of your quantitative/survey research articles.

The issues you need to address are outlined below, and your critical analysis will be

approximately two typed pages for each article.

I.Theoretical Orientation.

What is the research question/topic? What theory is presented? Why is the research

important? What are the hypotheses?


1. What is the unit of analysis? What is the time dimension? What sampling procedure

was used? Was it appropriate for the research question/ the population under

consideration? Discuss the sample size (and demographic characteristics), and


2. What are the independent and dependent variables? What other key (control)

variables are identified? How are the central concepts defined and operationalized?

(Include the names/definitions, and indicators of each major concept.) Is the level of

measurement appropriate? How does the study assess reliability and validity?

III.Data Collection and Analysis Critique

1. What was the response rate, and does the author address the issue of nonresponse

bias? Do the questions asked of respondents (number, wording) adequately reflect the

concepts? For closed-ended questions, were the response categories appropriate, exhaustive, and mutually exclusive? For open-ended questions, how were the responses categorized? Were the questions clear and unambiguous, avoiding social

desirability, etc.? 2. What statistical analyses were are applied to the data? What are the key research results? Are the findings clearly presented, with appropriate inference about the strength and direction of the association and statistical significance of

hypothesized relationships? Does the author make causal inferences? What evidence is presented regarding direction of influence and nonspuriousness?

IV.Conclusions and Reporting.

Is the method used appropriate, or well-suited, to addressing the research question or

testing the hypothesis?

How do the researchers address ethical concerns? Are procedures implemented that

adequately protect participants’ rights and welfare?

What substantive conclusions are drawn from the study? Are the conclusions

appropriate to the design and the representativeness of the sample? Does the author

discuss alternative explanations of findings or results? Does the research replicate,

modify, extend, or contradict previous studies?

Has the researcher reported any shortcomings in the study design or execution? Does

the author discuss the implications of study results for future research?

What do you think of the quality of the research?

B. Proposed Research Design

This section will be approximately three-four typed pages.

First, provide a critical integration (compare and contrast) of the articles to

summarize “what is known” about the topic. You might note important similarities or

differences in theoretical orientation, sampling/methods, data analysis/results,

conclusions, strengths and limitations. Taking the articles together, what do you now

know overall about your research topic, and what gaps in existing knowledge remain?

Then, propose an alternative survey design to replicate, extend, or improve upon

the studies you reviewed, particularly addressing any noted errors, limitations, or


What population/sampling procedure would you use; why? What mode of survey

administration will you use: why? Will you use the same or different questions as those

in your literature; why?

Include your questionnaire. You will need at least two indicators (or an existing

scale) each for your independent variable, dependent variable, and control variables.

After these are approved, you will pre-test them on about five cases, and you will

include the results (what you learned) in your final proposal paper.

base on the exercise 1 add 4more pages


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