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**t Tests and ANOVA**

This week, you explore key statistical concepts related to data and problem solving through the completion of the following exercises using SPSS and the information found in your *Statistics and Data Analysis for Nursing Research* textbook. The focus of this assignment is to become familiar with the SPSS data analysis software, and to develop an understanding of how to calculate and summarize inferential statistics using *t* tests and ANOVA.

**To prepare:**

- Review the
*Statistics and Data Analysis for Nursing Research*chapters that you read as a part of the Week 5 Learning Resources. As you do so, pay close attention to the examples presented—they provide information that will be useful for you to recall when completing the software exercises. You may also wish to review the*Research Methods for Evidence-Based Practice*video resources. - Refer to the Week 5 t Test Exercises (see attached file) and follow the directions to perform a
*t*test. - Download and save the Polit2SetC.sav (see attached file) data set. You will open the data file in SPSS.
- Compare your data output against the tables presented in the Week 5 t Test Exercises SPSS Output. (see attached file)
- Formulate an initial interpretation of the meaning or implication of your calculations.
- Refer to the Week 5 ANOVA Exercises (see attached file) and follow the directions to perform an ANOVA using the Polit2SetA.sav (see attached file) data set.
- Compare your data output against the tables presented in the Week 5 ANOVA Exercises SPSS Output (see attached file)
- Formulate an initial interpretation of the meaning or implication of your calculations.

**To complete:**

1) Complete the Part I, Part II, and Part III steps and Assignments as outlined in the Week 5 t Test Exercises (see attached file) page.

2) Complete the steps and Assignment as outlined in the Week 5 ANOVA Exercises (see attached file) page.

3) Create one document with your responses to the *t* test exercises and the ANOVA exercises.

**Required Media**

**“One Sample T-Test”**

Used by permission from SPSSVideoTutor.com A division of Consumer Raters LLC., 1121 S Military Trail, 314, Deerfield Beach, FL 33442, USA

**Note:** The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.

**“Independent Samples T-Test” **

Used by permission from SPSSVideoTutor.com A division of Consumer Raters LLC., 1121 S Military Trail, 314, Deerfield Beach, FL 33442, USA

**Note: **The approximate length of this media piece is 5 minutes.

**Dependent Samples T-Test”**

Used by permission from SPSSVideoTutor.com A division of Consumer Raters LLC., 1121 S Military Trail, 314, Deerfield Beach, FL 33442, USA

**Note: **The approximate length of this media piece is 6 minutes.

**“One-way Analysis of Variance”**

SPSSVideoTutor.com A division of Consumer Raters LLC., 1121 S Military Trail, 314, Deerfield Beach, FL 33442, USA

**Note: **The approximate length of this media piece is 7 minutes.

**Required Readings**

**Gray, J.R., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burns, and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). St.** **Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.**

Chapter 25, “Using Statistics to Determine Differences”

This excerpt elaborates on how statistics are used to examine causality using procedures such as contingency tables, chi-squares, t tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Statistics and Data Analysis for Nursing Research

Chapter 5, “Statistical Inference”

This chapter discusses inferential statistics, sampling error, sampling distributions, and the laws of probability. The chapter also introduces key terms such as standard error of mean, hypothesis testing, and parametric test.

Chapter 6, “t Tests: Testing Two Mean Differences”

This chapter considers the various forms of the t test, including the two-sample t test, Kolmogrov-Smirnov test, independent groups t test, and dependent groups t test. The chapter also discusses the many variables involved in these tests such as effect size, meta-analysis, and Cohen’s d.

Chapter 7, “Analysis of Variance” (pp. 137–146 and 155–158)

The first part of this chapter introduces the basic assumptions, requirements, general logic, and terminology surrounding analysis of variance (ANOVA). The second excerpt focuses on sampling distribution of the F ratio and the null and alternative hypotheses.

**Jadcherla, S. R., Wang, M., Vijayapal, A. S., & Leuthner, S. R. (2010). Impact of prematurity and co-morbidities on feeding milestones in neonates: A retrospective study. Journal of Perinatology, 30(3), 201–208. doi:10.1038/jp.2009.149**

This article outlines the procedures and results of a retrospective study of how perinatal and comorbidity factors affect the rate at which infants meet feeding milestones. The article also includes an application of inferential statistics to the results of the study.

**Optional Resources**

**Shin, J. H. (2009). Application of repeated-measures analysis of variance and hierarchical linear model in nursing research. Nursing Research, 58(3), 211–217. doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e318199b5ae**

**Walden University. (n.d.). Analysis of variance.** Retrieved August 1, 2011, from http://streaming.waldenu.edu/hdp/researchtutorials/educ8106_player/educ8106_analysis_of_variance_anova.html

**Walden University. (n.d.). Inferential statistics.** Retrieved August 1, 2011, from http://streaming.waldenu.edu/hdp/researchtutorials/educ8106_player/educ8106_inferential_stats_and_hypothesis_testing.html

**Walden University. (n.d.). t-Tests.** Retrieved August 1, 2011, from http://streaming.waldenu.edu/hdp/researchtutorials/educ8106_player/educ8106_ttests.html

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